Blood in the semen
Semen is a white or light grey liquid, emitted from the urethra (It is a tube in the penis) on ejaculation. Blood in Semen is actually fairly common, and in younger men, it’s very rarely a sign of a serious problem. Blood in the semen, called hematospermia, is blood that is either too small to be seen (microscopic) or visible in the ejaculation fluid. Blood in Semen (Hematospermia) has many potential causes, the most common of which is inflammation of the seminal vesicles, they are small glands that produce most of the fluid in semen. Organs possible affected by hematospermia include the urethra, the bladder, the testicles, the seminal vesicles, the epididymis, or even the prostate gland. In most cases, blood in semen is a side effect of prostate-gland biopsy.
Semen is an organic fluid that carries sperm and is produced in the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and urethral glands. Blood in the semen is usually caused by inflammation of the seminal vesicles. The exact cause of blood in semen is unknown. Here are some of the most common conditions that have been reported to cause hematospermia.
- The presence of malignant or benign tumors in the bladder, seminal vesicles, testes, or prostate.
- Cancers that have metastasized or spread from other parts of the body, in this case, the genitourinary system.
- The presence of hemorrhage, cysts, or abnormalities of the seminal vesicles.
- Variety of infections that may or may not be sexually transmitted. These infections are but not limited to herpes, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or cytomegalovirus.
- The inflammation or swelling of the prostate (prostatitis), inflammation of the urethra (urethritis), or the inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis). The presence of stones (calculi) in the prostate or seminal vesicles also cause of hematospermia.
- Obstructions located in the duct or pathway used for ejaculation.
- The presence of urethral polyps.
Signs and Symptoms
The symptoms of blood in semen may vary depending on the cause. Associated symptoms may include:
- Blood in the urine (called haematuria)
- Pain with ejaculation
- Pain with bowel movement
- Swelling in scrotum
- Tenderness in the scrotum
- Lower back pain
- Fever or chills
- Hot, burning urination or other symptoms of painful urination
- Difficulty emptying your bladder completely
- A painful bladder that feels distended
- Penis discharge or other signs of an STI
- Swollen or painful areas on the sex organs or obvious scrapes from injury
- Fever, racing pulse and higher-than-normal blood pressure
Diagnosis and Test
Diagnosis begins with a history and physical examination. The doctor will perform a physical examination, looking for signs of:
- Swollen or tender scrotum
- Discharge from the urethra
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Enlarged or tender prostate
If the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is not clear, more tests should be done. These tests may also be done:
- Prostate exam
- Semen analysis
- Semen culture
- Urine culture
- Ultrasound of pelvis
- Ultrasound of the seminal vesicles, scrotum, and testes